Applications of Chloroacetyl chloride
The major use of chloroacetyl chloride is as an intermediate in the production of alachlor and butachlor an estimated 100 million pounds are used annually. Some chloroacetyl chloride is also used to produce phenacyl chloride, another chemical intermediate, also used as a tear gas. Phenacyl chloride is synthesized in a Friedel-Crafts acylation of benzene, with an aluminium chloride catalyst:
Applications of Monochloroacetic acid
The major industrial use of monochloroacetic acid (MCA) is in the manufacture of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). CMC is used in a broad range of applications, including detergents, food, textiles, coatings, drilling muds, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. However MCA is used in the manufacture of a wide variety of other useful chemical compounds.
Monochloroacetic acid is used in the production of ibuprofen/brufen, dichlophenac sodium, caffeine, vitamins (e.g witamin B), glycine, N-(P-hydroxyphenyl)-glycine (METOL), maleanates. Chloroacetic acid is converted to chloroacetyl chloride, a precursor to adrenaline (epinephrine).
Agrochemicals (insecticides, herbicides)
It is an intermediate for the production of pesticides like 2,4-D acids (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), Dimethoate, CAC (Chloroacetyl chloride), TCAC (Trichloroacetyl chloride), 2,4,5-T acid (2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid), MCPA (2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid), glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine).
Monochloroacetic acid is widely used in chemical industry as intermediates in the synthesis of indigo dyes.
MCA is used to make surfactants, particularly mild betaine amphoteric surfactants.
Heating MCA with sodium or potassium hydrogen sulphide gives thioglycolic acid. Thioglycolic acid and its derivatives are used in the production of hair cosmetics.
There is the use of MCA in tin stabilizers for processing PVC resins.
- Manufacture of glycolic acid, substituted guar gums, coumarin, barbituric acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), malonic acid, malononitrile, mercaptoacetic acid, aminoacetic acid, drilling fluids, cyanoacetic acid, phenoxyacetic acid, chloroacetic acid esters, chloroacetamides, carcosines.
- Research and development laboratories,
- Fabric mills, communication equipment (television, radio, telegraph), automotive stamping.
Applications of Hydrochloric acid
Hydrochloric acid is a strong inorganic acid that is used in many industrial processes such as refining metal. The application often determines the required product quality.
- Pickling of steel
- Production of organic compounds
- Production of inorganic compounds
- pH Control and neutralization
- Regeneration of ion exchangers
Hydrochloric acid is used for a large number of small-scale applications, such as leather processing, purification of common salt, household cleaning, and building construction. Oil production may be stimulated by injecting hydrochloric acid into the rock formation of an oil well, dissolving a portion of the rock, and creating a large-pore structure. Oil well acidizing is a common process in the North Sea oil production industry.
Hydrochloric acid has been used for dissolving calcium carbonate, i.e. such things as de-scaling kettles and for cleaning mortar off brickwork, but it is a hazardous liquid which must be used with care. When used on brickwork the reaction with the mortar only continues until the acid has all been converted, producing calcium chloride, carbon dioxide, and water:
Many chemical reactions involving hydrochloric acid are applied in the production of food, food ingredients, and food additives. Typical products include aspartame, fructose, citric acid, lysine, hydrolyzed vegetable protein as food enhancer, and in gelatin production. Food-grade (extra-pure) hydrochloric acid can be applied when needed for the final product.